< Topic 4...................................................................................................................................................Topic 6 >

Key Concept 4.1: The United States began to develop a modern democracy and celebrated a new national culture, while Americans sought to define the nation’s democratic ideals and change their society and institutions to match them.


Topics on the Page
  1. Washington, Hamilton and the Shaping of the National Government
  2. Emergence of Political Parties and Republicans
  3. Republican Motherhood and Education of Women
  4. Beginnings of the Second Awakening
  5. Significance of Jefferson's Presidency
  6. Expansion into the Trans-Appalachian West; American Indian Resistence
  7. Growth of Slavery and Free Black Communities
  8. The War of 1812 and its Consequences

For more resources, see U.S. History I.11 and Government 1.3



1. Washington, Hamilton, and the Shaping of the National Government:
external image Chief_Justice_John_Marshall.jpgrotating gif.gifSee Massachusetts U.S. History I.22 for material on the Presidencies of George Washington, John Adams and Thomas Jefferson

Image to the right is the Statue of Chief Justice of the Supreme Court John Marshall


2. Emergence of political Parties: Federalists and Republicans:

rotating gif.gifSee Massachusetts U.S. History I.22 for material on the Federalists and Democratic-Republicans

WhiteHouseSouthFacade.JPGSee Wikimedia Commons for Presidential Election maps from 1789 to 2004.

For more on political parties, see


Female_Rose.png3. Republican Motherhood and education for Women:



4. Beginnings of the Second Awakening:



5. Significance of Jefferson's Presidency:

rotating gif.gifSee Massachusetts U.S. History I.22 for material on Jefferson's presidency
Lewis & Clark on the Lower Columbia, Charles Marion Russell, 1905
Lewis & Clark on the Lower Columbia, Charles Marion Russell, 1905



Rotating_globe-small.gifFor a perspective that challenges the view of Jefferson as a benevolent slaveowner, see The Dark Side of Thomas Jefferson from Smithsonian Magazine, a selection from Master of the Mountain: Thomas Jefferson and His Slaves. Henry Wiencek (Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2012).



6. Expansion into the Trans-Appalachian West; American Indian Resistence:

rotating gif.gif


7. Growth of Slavery and Free Black Communities:


rotating gif.gif

Estimated numbers of embarked and disembarked slaves in the Atlantic slave trade.
Estimated numbers of embarked and disembarked slaves in the Atlantic slave trade.


8. The War of 1812 and its Consequences:

Cannon dating to the War of 1812
Cannon dating to the War of 1812



external image Red_apple.jpgWar of 1812 Bicentiennial from TeachingHistory.org

rotating gif.gifFor more information on the War of 1812, see Massachusetts Grade 5.32


President Madison's 1812 War Message: 3 Lessons

map_icon.jpegThe War of 1812 from LearnAlberta in Canada features 9 interactive maps.





external image Red_apple.jpg
Click here for Temple of Liberty: Building the Capitol for a New Nation, a virtual field trip from the Library of Congress.