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Explain the importance of the China trade and the whaling industry to 19th century New England, and give examples of imports from China.


Focus Question: What was the role of the China Trade and the whaling industry in 19th century New England?


See USI.28 for more on the changing economy in mid-19th Century America.


external image Agregateur_Poietique.gifSee K-12 Modern China wiki for material on Chinese history in the 20th Century.

external image Walfang_zwischen_1856_und_1907.jpg

Introduction to Whaling

Whale oil was a major industry in New England during the 19th Century.
  • The whale's oil, obtained from the blubber and used for lighting and lubricating, and other byproducts became important resources for trade.
  • Europeans had whaled in the Atlantic for many centuries prior, but the practice didn't expand in the colonies until the late 1700's.
  • New Bedford, Massachusetts would eventually become known as the "whaling capital of the world."
  • As many as 700 ships called New Bedford's port their home at the middle of the 18th century. However, the industry that provided so much to the regions economy met its demise with the expansion of underground oil extraction.
  • The ships would shoot harpoons at the whales with wooden floats attached by ropes
  • The whales would become exhausted pulling the floats through the water
  • They would be killed with lances and then towed to shore
  • The blubber from the whale would be removed and boiled into oil
  • The blubber was boiled in iron vats called "try-pots"
  • The rest of the whale would be made into various products
  • When whales started to disappear from the coasts, whalers moved their search into the deeper water
  • The whaling ships held 30-35 men
  • The whaling industry began its decline in the 1860s
Click here for more information on the whaling industry
New_Bedford_ma_highlight.png
Location of New Bedford, the Whaling Capital of the World

Multimedia.pngPacific Encounters: Yankee Whalers, Manjiro and the Opening of Japan from the New Bedford Whaling Museum uses the life of John Manjiro, the first Japanese person to live and work in the continental United States to explore the connections between east and west.
Multimedia.pngClick here to listen to an audio book version of Moby Dick, or The Whale by Herman Melville.
Multimedia.pngClick here for a youtube playlist of popular whaling songs of the 19th century, recorded by Paul Clayton in the 1950s
Rotating_globe-small.gifPortraits of Ports, a website from the New Bedford Whaling Museum presents a look at whaling ports in New Bedford, Massachusetts and Barrow, Alaska, home to the western Arctic's first whalers, the Inupiat Eskimo peoples. The site focuses on the people, the community, and the impacts of the whaling industr
Oil Made from Sperm Whales
Oil Made from Sperm Whales
y, ecologically and economically.
Rotating_globe-small.gifCape Verdeans in the Whaling Industry. The area outside the town of Nantucket (Massachusetts) where Cape Verdeans lived was known as "Guinea-Town" or "New Guinea."

multicultural.pngLife Aboard a Whaling Ship by the New Bedford Whaling Museum. This describes daily life, traditions, and multicultural environments on the whaling ships.
Massachusetts_state_seal.pngIn the 19th century New Bedford, Massachusetts became the center of the New England whaling industry as well as a main point of Portuguese immigration. The city became known as the "Portuguese capital of the United States."

primary_sources.PNGClick here to read letters of whalers, from the Nantucket Historical Society

timeline2_rus.svg.pngClick here for a timeline of American Whaling from PBS
womens history.jpgClick here to read about the wives of whalers

Chinese Trade

  • China was traditionally isolated and the only trading post available was Canton
  • After the 1842 Treaty of Nanking, more trading posts opened
  • external image 13two.jpgDuring the 1800s, trade with the Chinese rose as it subsequently declined in Europe
  • Ships would start from the Eastern coast of the US, around the Cape of Good Hope, across the Indian Ocean, and ended in China
  • Upon their return from the Oriental Region, ships provided:
    • paintings
    • tea
    • wallpaper
    • furniture
    • lacquer ware silver
    • ivory
    • jade
      jade.jpg
      Chinese Jade
    • textiles
    • porcelain
    • navigational instruments and charts
  • Owning Chinese goods represented being in a higher class and being cultured
  • A lot of the furniture styles that made there way over can still be found in the New England region and beyond today.
Click here for more info on American trade with China
Click here to read "China's Gifts to the West" by Professor Derk Bodde