<Standard 5.6.............................................................................................................................Standard 5.8>

Identify some of the major leaders and groups responsible for the founding of the original colonies in North America.

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Topics on the Page

A. Background

  • Lost Colony of Roanoke

B. Lord Baltimore in Maryland

  • Margaret Brent

C. William Penn in Pennsylvania

D. John Smith in Virginia

  • Virtual Jamestown and the Jamestown Colony

  • Historical Biography Page on Pocahontas

  • Bacon's Rebellion

E. Roger Williams in Rhode Island

  • Anne Hutchinson

F. John Winthrop in Massachusetts


Background

New England Colonies........

Middle Colonies........

Southern Colonies

New Hampshire

New York

Maryland

Massachusetts

New Jersey

Virginia

Rhode Island

Pennsylvania

North & South Carolina

Connecticut

Delaware

Georgia


timeline2_rus.svg.pngClick here to view an interactive timeline of the 13 original colonies

external image Red_apple.jpgThe Thirteen American Colonies provides an easy-to-read overview with definitions of key terms from English-Online.
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  • Click here for a "Pilgrim Rap" from Horrible Histories.

multicultural.png Click here for an NPR audio-clip on the legacy of the long march of the Navajo Indians.

Religious_Symbols-ani.gifReligion in Colonial America from the University of North Carolina at Pembroke.

Image below shows a US stamp,1937, honoring Virginia Dare, 1st child born in an English colony in North America.

external image Virginia_dare_stamp.JPG
Rotating_globe-small.gifLost Colony of Roanoke

Historical Background on the Lost Colony of Roanoke from PBS.

primary_sources.PNGThe Colony at Roanoke account by Ralph Lane, 1586

Fort Raleigh National Historic Site: History and Culture from the National Park Service. For added historical perspective, see The Freedmen's Colony on Roanoke Island where African Americans gained freedom during the Civil War.

Have We Found the Lost Colony of Roanoke Island? from National Geographic (December 2013).

Screen Shot 2016-01-04 at 11.31.08 AM.pngThis website has games for students to learn about the background of colonial America. This website has flashcards to definitions, quizzes, hangman, and other games to help students learn this material in a new way (10).

Major Leaders of North American Colonies


external image Georgecalvert.jpg


Lord Baltimore (aka George Calvert) In Maryland


Lord Baltimore was a revolutionary in the fact that he was the first to dream of a colony in America where Catholics and Protestants could live and work together.
  • He was born in Yorkshire, England and studied at Trinity College at Oxford. In 1625, Calvert announced to James I that he had become a Catholic, and therefore had to resign. However, King James, I liked Calvert intensely and decided to give him another title.
  • Sir George Calvert then became the First Baron of Baltimore, a town on the southern coast of Ireland. Now that Lord Baltimore had money, he could invest in his dream about the exploration of the New World.
  • He wanted to help create English colonies in America, so he invested money in both the New England and Virginia companies. Eventually, he drew a map for King Charles I, showing a territory that he wanted just north of the colony of Virginia, in present-day Maryland.
  • George Calvert died in 1632, just before he was able to establish a charter for his new colony, named Maryland. Calvert’s eldest son, Cecil, the Second Lord Baltimore, helped to bring his father’s dream colony to life.

Multimedia.pngClick here to watch a video about the Maryland Act of Toleration (1649) which guaranteed religious freedom to both Protestants and Catholics.George Calvert,
    • Lord Baltimore wanted to create a place for Catholics to be given the same religious freedom as the Puritans did when they established their own colony but died before this became a reality. Lord Baltimore gave his charter his son, Cecil Calvert.
  • The Maryland colony was established in 1634 on the northern bank of the Potomac River, which gave the colony fertile land
    • The greatest attraction to this colony was religious tolerance and all Christians were welcome
      • Read this article to learn more about Maryland's establishment and Lord Baltimore (6)

Margaret Brent

Image from Stafford County Museum
Image from Stafford County Museum




external image Lely%2C_William_Penn.jpgWilliam Penn in Pennsylvania


William Penn was born on October 24, 1644. His father was an English admiral, Sir William Penn.
  • Young William grew up during a turbulent time of revolution.
    • For a short time, he was a soldier and so successful a one that he thought of making a career in the army. But, seeing the effects of violence and persecution first hand, he began to dream of a society in which war would have no place, and in which a man might freely worship according to his own conscience.
  • He joined the Quakers, who were pacifists, and threw his energies with theirs into political battles for freedom of religion, freedom of assembly, and the right to trial by jury.
  • In 1681, the time came for William Penn to make his dreams come true. King Charles II gave Penn a huge tract of land in North America and named it, in honor of the Admiral, Pennsylvania. Here he would set up a society of Quakers where he could practice his beliefs freely.
    • Penn gave freedom of religious worship to the settlers. This attracted Quakers that were facing persecution in Britain but also settlers from other countries, such as German Quakers, English and Irish Catholics, Lutherans from Catholic German states, German Mennonites, Swiss Amish, and French Huguenots.
  • Penn wanted Native Americans and European settlers to work together
    • Pennsylvania was an experiment in a more democratic form of government that was usually seen in Europe at this time. Pennsylvania's first constitution was entitled the "Frame of Government" to give settlers more power in the government and divided the government into three parts to prevent corruption
      • Read this article to learn more about how William Penn governed his colony and his commitment to democracy and religious tolerance (7).

primary_sources.PNGWilliam Penn also made up his own form of government for Pennsylvania, which later was supplanted, but still impressive Frame of Government of Pennsylvania.

For more, see Our First Friends, The Early Quakers from the Pennsylvania Historical & Museum Commission. See also, The Quakers of the Middle Colonies from Pennsbury Manor in Morrisville, PA.

womens history.jpgmulticultural.pngClick here and/or here to read about Quaker activism for both women's right and the abolition of slavery.

Screen Shot 2017-03-23 at 1.58.11 PM.pngNative Americans in Early America and Pennsylvania

external image John_Smith_BAH.jpg

John Smith in Virginia


Jamestown was settled in 1607 by a group colonists led by Captain John Smith. Smith and the Jamestown colonists were seeking gold and silver under directions from their sponsors, the Virginia Company of London. They also hoped to find the Northwest Passage, a route across the North American continent to the Pacific Ocean and China. Born in 1580 in Willoughby, England, John Smith left home at age 16 after his father died.
  • His American adventures began at this time. Apparently unsettled in England, Smith became actively involved with the Virginia Company and their plans to colonize Virginia.
  • The expedition, composed of three main ships, set sail in December 1606, and finally reached Virginia in April 1607, after withstanding a lengthy voyage of over four months. Smith was chosen to govern the colony when they landed. On May 13, 1607, the settlers landed at Jamestown ready to begin the task of surviving in a new environment.
  • The harsh winter, lack of fresh water, and the spread of diseases made life in Jamestown difficult for most of the settlers. Attacks by the native Indians made life extremely difficult. The natives, hoping that the settlers would leave, raided their camps, stealing pistols, gunpowder and other necessary supplies for survival in a harsh environment.
  • John Smith became the leader of the colonists and tried to keep the colony afloat. Eventually, Smith was injured in a gunpowder accident and was forced to return to England, never to return to Virginia again.
  • John Smith was more open-minded and tolerant of the Native Americans than many other British colonists
  • John Smith learned the language of the Native Americans and was able to communicate and negotiate with them without the help of an interpreter
  • John Smith was captured by Powhatan, the chief of many tribes in that area, but was later able to make negotiations with him that allowed Jamestown to thrive. However, Powhatan and the settlers' alliance did dissolve by the time John Smith left Virginia
  • This page describes John Smith's relationship with Native Americans and has suggestions for open-ended questions to ask students (7).

primary_sources.PNGSmith kept a ledger documenting life in early colonial Jamestown and it can be viewed here.

Female_Rose.pngSee Important Historical Person Page on Pocahontas


Here are excerpts from Virginia Women: The First Two Hundred Years by Anne Firor Scott and Suzane Lebsock



Virtual Jamestown and the Jamestown Colony

Screen Shot 2016-02-13 at 11.47.54 AM.pngClick on the following link for interactive material on Jamestown, including 3D representations of a native village and colonial fort plus interactive maps on John Smith's voyages.

Screen Shot 2016-02-27 at 11.29.04 AM.pngEarly Jamestown is an interactive book for the iPad from iTunes.
Multimedia.pngVideo about remnants from the lost library of Jamestown.


"Loading a Cargo of Tobacco" 1910
"Loading a Cargo of Tobacco" 1910

Jamestown, New Research
Writing in National Geographic Magazine, historian Charles Mann has summarized new research on the impact that European settlers had on native peoples and societies.
The Jamestown Colony is known for two important historical developments:
  • English America's first representative government
  • First English colony to use captured Africans as slaves

Ecological Imperialism
Moreover, notes Charles Mann, "the colonists did not come to the Americas alone. Instead, they were accompanied by a great parade of insects, plants, mammals, and microorganisms" (National Geographic, May 2007, p. 37). In addition, the English settlers "replaced or degraded so much of the native ecosystem that they made it harder and harder for the Indians to survive in their native lands" (p. 44). The great impact came from the roles played by tobacco, honeybees, and domestic animals, each of which fundamentally changed the ecological balance of native life.

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  • John Rolfe is credited with expanding the tobacco trade and transforming the economy of the Virginia colony.
    • See also John Rolfe from the National Park Service site on Historic Jamestown.

For more, see Rolfe's Tobacco Crop Launched a Country from the Henrico Citizen newspaper, December 19, 2011.
Burning of Jamestown during Bacon's Rebellion (1676)
Burning of Jamestown during Bacon's Rebellion (1676)

Bacon's Rebellion (1676)


For more, see Bacon's Rebellion from the National Park Service

primary_sources.PNGThe Declaration by Nathaniel Bacon

Bacon's Rebellion and the Defeat of the Saponi Tribes at Occoneechee Island


Roger Williams in Rhode Island


external image Roger_Williams_statue_by_Franklin_Simmons.jpg
Roger Williams was born in London around 1603. He entered Pembroke College at Cambridge University from where he graduated in 1627. Soon after, he left Cambridge and became Chaplain to a wealthy family. As time went on he was becoming a controversial figure because of his ideas on freedom of worship. In 1630, ten years after the Pilgrims landed at Plymouth, Roger thought it best to leave England.

He arrived at Boston in the Massachusetts Bay Colony where he became at odds with the structured Puritans. When he was about to be deported back to England, Roger fled southwest out of the Massachusetts Bay Colony and was befriended by local Indians. Roger purchased land from these Indians and named his settlement Providence in thanks to God. He is credited with the founding of the Rhode Island colony in 1636.


primary_sources.PNGRoger Williams is an interesting figure because he did not simply take land from the Native Americans. The following primary source shows how his ideals differed from others at the time: Roger Williams, from The Bloody Tenent of Persecution (1644).

Read how Roger Williams gave us Thanksgiving as we know it from the Boston Globe.

multicultural.pngRead about Roger Williams's relationship with the local Indian tribes from the Smithsonian Magazine.

lessonplan.jpgCheck out these lesson plans on Roger Williams from the National Park Services.

womens history.jpgAnne Hutchinson

Anne Hutchinson was born in Alford, England in 1591. Living in the Massachusetts Bay Colony under John Winthrop she was banished to Rhode Island in 1638 on charges of blasphemy and sedition. These charges were brought up because of her questioning puritanical teachings. She argued that it contradictory to teach salvation being dependent on both and individuals good works and divine grace. The Puritan response was to claim that good works are the only evidence of salvation rather than the grounds of salvation.

external image Anne_Hutchinson_on_Trial.jpg

primary_sources.PNGSee link for a transcript of the trial.
Multimedia.pngSee link for a video on the trial of Anne Hutchinson.






John Winthrop in Massachusetts

rotating gif.gifFor more on the Pilgrims and Puritans, see Grade 3.4.

There is an important historical distinction between the Pilgrims (religious separatists who arrived at Plymouth Rock in 1620 intending to make a complete break with the Church of England) and Puritans (religious reformers who wanted to improve the Church by taking away unneeded features).

Everything You Never Learned in School about the Mayflower, WGBH News (August 7, 2015).

external image John_Winthrop_gravure.jpg
John Winthrop was born in Suffolk, England in 1588.
  • Educated at Cambridge University he practiced law in London but was persecuted for his Puritan religious practices and beliefs. Winthrop views did not coincide with traditional Catholicism.
  • He also believed that the government was too tolerant towards those who were guilty of adultery, drunkenness, and breaching the Sabbath.

Winthrop was given a charter for the Massachusetts Bay Colony and arrived with seven hundred settlers in 1630.
  • He served as governor of Massachusetts for at least 12 terms and was considered to be a good leader.
  • Winthrop was the man who banished Roger Williams from the colony.
  • In 1645 Winthrop became the first president of the Confederation of New England.


primary_sources.PNG A Puritan, John Winthrop is known for his sermon "A Model of Christian Charity" (also known as the City on the Hill sermon).

John Winthrop describes life in Boston, 1634 from the Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History.
lessonplan.jpgmulticultural.pngWorksheet with an excerpt of Winthrop's defense of taking Native American land with accompanying discussion questions.
multicultural.pngArticle from the Boston Globe detailing how Winthrop kept Native Americans as slaves.

This video shows that Winthrop wanted all of the free people of the Massachusetts Bay Province to participate in the government. Winthrop created local self-governments in the towns of this colony and this video also talks about the economy of the Massachusetts Bay Province (9).

Early seal of the Massachusetts Bay Colony from 1629-1684.
Early seal of the Massachusetts Bay Colony from 1629-1684.


external image 200px-Paperback_book_black_gal.svg.pngFor an alternative perspective on the Pilgrims, see Making Haste From Babylon: The Mayflower Pilgrims and Their World: A New History, Nick Bunker, Alfred Knopf, 2010.

As Russell Shorto noted in his review of the book ("Founding Entrepreneurs," The New York Times Book Review, May 23, 2010, p. 21) the decision of the Pilgrims to leave England had "both religious and financial motivations.

The Pilgrims' voyage to America was a business venture whose backers—few of them especially religious—expected a return on their investment. And like millions after them, the Pilgrims themselves had a real-world American dream in mind, which was centered on the North America beaver.

In the 1620s, a single beaver pelt fetched the same amount of money required to rent nine acres of English farmland for a year. For a time, the Pilgrims capitalized on that raw material; in the 1630s, they shipped 2,000 beaver pelts to England."


Click here to test your knowledge of important people in the 13 original colonies.


womens history.jpgHere is a lesson plan, video, and quiz on the role of women in Colonial America


Test_hq3x.pngWhich of the following is most characteristic of the literacy works of Jonathan Edwards and Cotton Mather during the colonial period?
a) The justification for governing the colonies democratically.
b) A celebration of experimentation and innovation as American traits.
c) Need for strict adherence to Puritan religious beliefs and moral codes
d) Admiration for a fearless sense of discovery and joy
CORRECT ANSWER: C



Works Cited

[1] (2003). Sir George Calvert, Lord Baltimore. Retrieved April 4, 2007, from Our Country Web site: http://www.publicbookshelf.com/public_html/Our_Country_Vol_1/sirgeorge_ej.html
[2] Powell, J William Penn, America's First Great Champion for Liberty and Peace. Retrieved April 4, 2007, from The Freeman Web site: http://www.quaker.org/wmpenn.html
[3] Montgommery, D (1994). Captain John Smith. Retrieved April 4, 2007, from Colonial Williamsburg Web site: http://www.history.org/foundation/journal/smith.cfm
[4] Behling, S (1997). Roger Williams. Retrieved April 4, 2007, Web site: http://homepages.rootsweb.com/~sam/roger.html
[5] McCarter, J John Winthrop: FIrst Governor of Massachusetts Bay Colony. Retrieved April 4, 2007, Web site: http://www.puritans.net/curriculum/John%20Winthrop.pdf
(6) http://www.heritage-history.com/?c=read&author=southworth&book=builders1&story=baltimore
(7) http://explorepahistory.com/story.php?storyId=1-9-3
(8) http://smithtrail.net/native-americans/indians-smith
(9) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cNqGhe2KHak&list=PLEPZt5tl4ImZbnPyfk7wE9XS8XDNtk3fX
(10) http://www.studystack.com/flashcard-180908

Image IDs from left to right

1. George Calvert Wikipedia, "George Calvert".
2. William Penn Wikimedia Commons, "Lely, William Penn".
3. John Smith Wikimedia Commons, "John Smith BAH".
4. Pocahontas in Jamestown Wikimedia Commons, "Pocahontas at Jamestown".
5. Roger Williams Statue Wikimedia Commons, "Roger Williams statue by Franklin Simmons".
6. John Winthrop Wikimedia Commons, "John Winthrop gravure".