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A.4 Identify when modern African countries became independent nations and explain how independence was achieved. (H, G)
Democratic Republic of Congo
Central African Republic
São Tomé and Principe
The 19th C. saw a wholesale divvying-up of Africa among European nations, primarily by England, France, Belgium and Portugal. No longer content to kidnap Africans for slavery in their colonies and home nations, now European powers took their struggles for power and prestige to the African continent, and competed with each other for dominance there. After a lot of tug-of-war over land, the Berlin Conference (1884-1885) made national divisions official (for the Europeans, at any rate). European control over African land meant European control and ownership of African resources, such as ivory, rubber, hemp, and other materials essential to the perpetuation of European industry. Many African nations did not see self-rule and independence until the 1960s and 1970s; many did not achieve independence until the 1980s and 1990s.
By 1913 African nations were under the control of a short list of European powers.
Notice that many of these nations do not have the names they have now. Anglo-Egyptian Sudan’s governance was influenced by England, as was Zanzibar’s and Egypt’s. Only Liberia in the west, and the Empire of Ethiopia in the east, were completely independent states in 1913; Ethiopia was later colonized by Italy.
Union of South Africa
British East Africa
French Equatorial Africa
South West Africa
German East Africa
Rio de Oro
Historical Atlas of Africa
; Cambridge U. Press; 1985.
One example of Colonialism and Imperialism in Africa:
A historical low in colonial abuse, Belgium’s King Leopold, wanting a piece of Africa for himself personally, sent Lord Stanley to survey the Congo in 1876; Leopold took over the nation in 1885 Leopold’s minions proceeded to pillage its resources and torture its people with impunity. The prize in Congo was rubber, a hot commodity in the growing industrial revolution in Europe. With rubber vines growing wild in Congolese forests, Leopold’s forces kidnapped women, and held them hostage and tortured them in order to force their husbands and brothers to harvest the rubber from the forests. Another tactic of terror was for Leopold’s forces to prove they had killed opposition fighters by cutting off their hands and presenting the hangs to superiors for tallying.
There was an international outcry against the abuses in the Congo, but the terror continued for decades. These abuses were chronicled in detail before a Commission of Inquiry in 1904, which issued a report in 1905. Belgium took over administration of the Congo in 1908, but Congo did not achieve independence until 1960. As a result of its brutal history, the Democratic Republic of Congo has had chronic unrest and political turmoil ever since, including a civil war that started in 1998 in which 4 million people died.
King Leopold’s Ghost: A Story of Greed, Terror, and Heroism in Colonial Africa
; Houghton Mifflin, New York; 1998.
*From my wiki entry written last year at
The vast majority of countries in Africa gained independence in the 1960s and 1970s. Some were granted independence by their former occupiers; others fought liberation movements and won their independence.
All but a handful of Africa was divvied up by European rulers at the infamous Berlin Conference in 1864. Exceptions of note were Liberia, founded by former American slaves and never colonized, Eritrea, which used to be part of Somalia, Namibia, formerly controlled by South Africa, and Western Sahara, which used to be part of Morocco, and whose independence is still disputed.
Most nations in Africa won their independence through internal revolution. A few were granted independence by their European rulers (for example, Belgium granted the Democratic Republic of Congo its independence), but even those countries were not free from internal conflict. Again using the DRC as an example, Belgium left the country quite suddenly, leading to an internal power struggle that, over 40 years later, has not been resolved. Zimbabwe, too, is showing the after-effects of colonization. The freedom fighter Robert Mugabe came to power after independence, and gradually consolidated more and mroe power for himself alone. He named himself President for Life in 1985. In the face of recent (2008) presidential elections that resulted in his opponent's vicory (Morgan Tsvangirai), Mugabe refuses to relinquish power, and Zimbabwe's government is disintegrating. An example of this can be seen in the deterioration of sanitation and clean water systems in the country, which has been suffering from a severe cholera outbreak since summer 2008.
more independence information
[compiled in Feb. 2008 by wiki user "ljillson" originally posted under Middle East 3.]
Annexed by Italy in 1911 after Italo-Turkish wars. In 1934 becomes Italian colony. Italian and German forces were driven out during World War II and Libya was under the control of Great Britain and France. Italy officially gave up all claims in 1947. At the United Nations General Assembly in 1949 Libya was granted independence. Independence became effective in 1951,when the country became the United Kingdom of Libya.
Originally controlled by the Turks and then the British. Independence was gained in 1922, but Britain still maintained control of government institutions and the Suez Canal. A coup de tat by the Free Officers in 1952 led to the toppling of the British backed monarch in Egypt.
Co-ruled by Egypt (1874) and Britain (1882) until 1953, when granted self government. On January 1, 1956 independence was proclaimed. Since then, the Sudan has been ruled by unstable parliamentary and military governments.
Was a French protectorate from 1881 until 1956. Supported the Vichy government in France (which worked with Hitler once France was over run by Germany) during WWII. When Tunisia was turned over to the Free French, the Tunisian ruler was arrested for aiding the enemy. This sparked unrest against French rule. In 1954, Tunisia was promised full internal autonomy. This meant no control over foreign matters. Eventually, full independence was achieved in March 1956. France, however, did not fully withdraw from the country until 1963.
: Originally dominated by Spain. In 1912, however, France imposes protectorate. In 1953 France exiled Sultan Muhammad V and replaced him with Mohammad Ben Aaraffa. This sparked public opposition and Muhammad V returned in 1955. Full independence was achieved in 1956.
Became a French colony in 1922. After the establishment of the Fifth French Republic on December 4, 1958, Niger became an autonomous state. Full independence was gained on August 3, 1960.
Part of French Equatorial Africa in 1913. In 1946 become autonomous republic. An independence movement led by Francois (Ngarta) Tombalbaye led to complete independence on August 11, 1960. This was followed by three decades of civil war.
France began to dominate in 1880, but there was resistance until 1898 when France took full control. In 1960, the Sudanese Republic and Senegal became independent of France and formed the Mali Federation. Senegal withdrew from this union and what had once been called the Sudanese Republic became Mali.
Became a French territory in 1904, a French colony in 1920. Gained independence from France in 1960.
Annexed to France in 1830. Nationalist movements sprung up between WWI and WWII. A Revolutionary Committee was formed by Ahmed Ben Bella and 8 others in March of 1954. The National Liberation Front (FLN) was created. From 1954 until 1962, the French and the National Liberation Front fought for control of Algeria. The Front employed guerilla warfare tactics and blew up important buildings. De Gaulle finally makes concessions in order for some kind of peace to be possible. Calls for a referendum, where the people of Algeria will decide if they want to remain under French rule. A rebel group of those dedicated to keeping Algeria in the hands of the French went against the orders of the Army and De Gaulle. Calling themselves the OAS, the group attacked both the FLN and the French. Their movement was eventually put down and the Algerians voted for independence in 1962.
Sources and resources:
Cholera map of Zimbabwe from the BBC and the World Health Organization
maps and country data
info in independence chart from:
A—Z Countries of the World,
Peter Stalker, Oxford University Press, 2004
Imperial Reckoning: The Untold Story of Britain’s Gulag in Kenya
, Caroline Elkins, Henry Holt and Co., New York, 2005
Pulitzer-prize winning account of repressions in Kenya and the uprising htat led to independence
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