The 7Cs form a heptagon
The 7Cs form a heptagon
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The 7Cs of DemocraticTeaching

Click here to order We, The Students and Teachers by Robert W. Maloy and Irene S. LaRoche

The Case for Democratic Schools, Michael Apple and James Beane (2007).

Directory of Democratic Education, Alternative Education Resource Organization (2014)

How Students Lead the Learning Experience at Democratic Schools from MindShift (2014)

Harriet Tubman Democratic High School Albany, New York

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Contrasting: Curriculum Coverage and Uncoverage


How Students Learn History Through Uncoverage
    • Teaching Multicultural History
    • Lesson Plan: 10 Most Famous Americans Activity
Politics of Textbooks and Standards
Teaching Ideas for Curriculum Uncoverage
    • Lesson Plan: Teaching the Book Encounter
Opening Up the Textbook (OUT)
  • Why Are Social Studies Textbooks So Difficult to Read
  • Strategies for Opening Up the Textbook
Digital Textbooks/Open Educational Content (OER)

Conducting: Active Learning. Lesson Planning and Interactive Teaching

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Page from People's History of American Empire

Active Learning and Student Engagement
Lectures and Student Learning
    • Lesson Plan: Why Do History Teachers Lecture So Much?
Lesson Planning
Teaching with Literature
  • Picture Books
  • Young Adult and Adult Literature
  • Graphic Books
Primary Sources
Cooperative Learning
Writing and Poetry Writing Resources
Role Plays/Simulations

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Collaborating: Decision Making and Power Sharing


Creating Rules with Students
Consensus and Democratic Decision-Making
Robert's Rules and Martha's Rules of Order
Cooperatives as Democratic Organizations and Teacher Led Schools
Anti-Bullying and Safe Schools
Voting in America
School Suspensions and Restorative Discipline

African Americans Vote Harper's Magazine, 1867
African Americans Vote Harper's Magazine, 1867

Conversing: Student Involvement in Discussions and Assessments


Building Collaborative Classroom Cultures
Teaching about Controversy
    • Lesson Plan: Native American Mascots
      • Lesson Plan: Teaching the Atomic Bomb
Discussion Formats
  • Fishbowls
  • Debate, Discussion and Dialogue
  • Online Discussion Tools

Involving Students in Learning Assessment

Conferring: Using Feedback from Students to Guide Teaching Practice


Perspectives and Research on the Use of Student Feedback
MET Project Research
Implementing Student Feedback in the Classroom
National Policies and Practices
  • Examples of State Policies and Practices
    • Massachusetts
    • Connecticut
    • Georgia
    • Hawaii
    • Kentucky
    • Arizona
    • Ohio
    • Arkansas
    • Colorado
Many to Many Wiki by Anna Bauer
Many to Many Wiki by Anna Bauer

Co-Constructing: Technologies and Research in Inquiry-based Learning


Co-Constructing Knowledge with Technology
Identifying Fake News
Credible vs. Unreliable Resources
Website Evaluation Strategies
Flipped Classrooms
Wikis as a Teaching Technology
Twitter in the Classroom
Polls and Surveys

Connecting: Civic Learning and Democratic Engagement


Civic Learning by Students
  • Civics Test Questions
Community Engagement and Service Learning
  • Mock Trials as a Teaching Strategy
Youth Activism
  • Historical Examples and Teaching Strategies
Sugata Mitra and SOLEs (Self-Organized Learning Environments)

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United States 3 cent Stamp, 1977
United States 3 cent Stamp, 1977