Grade 3: Massachusetts and its Cities and Towns: Geography and History

New England and Massachusetts

3.1 On a map of the United States, locate the New England states (Connecticut, Rhode Island, Massachusetts, Vermont, New Hampshire, Maine) and the Atlantic Ocean. On a map of Massachusetts, locate major cities and towns, Cape Anne, Cape Cod, the Connecticut River, the Merrimack River, and Charles River, and the Berkshire Hills. (G)

3.2 Identify the Wampanoags and their leaders at the time the Pilgrims arrived, and describe their way of life. (H, G)

3.3 Identify who the Pilgrims were and explain why they left Europe to seek religious freedom; describe their journey and their early years in the Plymouth Colony. (H, G, C, E)

3.4 Explain how the Puritans and Pilgrims differed and identify early leaders in Massachusetts, such as John Winthrop; describe the daily life, education, and work of the Puritans in the Massachusetts Bay Colony. (H, E, C)

3.5 Explain important political, economic, and military developments leading to and during the American Revolution. (H, C)

A. the growth of towns and cities in Massachusetts before the Revolution
B. the Boston Tea Party
C. the beginning of the Revolution at Lexington and Concord
D. the Battle of Bunker Hill
E. Revolutionary leaders such as John Adams, Samuel Adams, John Hancock, and Paul Revere.

3.6 Identify the Declaration of Independence, the Constitution, and the Bill of Rights as key American documents. (C)

3.7 After reading a biography of a person from Massachusetts in one of the following categories, summarize the person's life and achievements. (H, C)

A. science and technology (e.g., Alexander Graham Bell, Nathaniel Bowditch, Robert Goddard, John Hayes Hammond, Edwin Land, Samuel Morse).
B. the arts (e.g., Henry Adams, Louisa May Alcott, John Singleton Copley, Emily Dickinson, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Theodore Geisel, Nathaniel Hawthorne, Oliver Wendel Holmes, Frederick Law Olmsted, Norman Rockwell, Henry David Thoreau, Phyllis Wheatley).
C. business (e.g., William Filene, Amos Lawrence, Francis Cabot Lowell, An Wang).
D. education, journalism, and health (e.g., Clara Barton, Horace Mann, William Monroe Trotter).
E. political leadership (e.g., John Adams, John Quincy Adams, Susan B. Anthony, Edward Brooke, Benjamin Franklin, John F. Kennedy, Paul Revere).

Cities and Towns of Massachusetts

3.8 On a map of Massachusetts, locate the class's home town or city and its local geographic features and landmarks. (G)

3.9 Identify historic buildings, monuments, or sites in the area and explain their purpose and significance. (H, C)

3.10 Explain the meaning of the stars and stripes in the American flag, and describe official procedures for the care and display of the flag. (C)

3.11 Identify when the students' own town and city was founded, and describe the different groups of people who have settled in the community since its founding. (H, G)

3.12 Explain how objects or artifacts of everyday life in the past tell us how ordinary people lived and how everyday life has changed. Draw on the services of the local historical society and local museums as needed. (H, G, E)

3.13 Give examples of goods and services provided by their local business and industries. (E)

3.14 Give examples of tax-supported facilities and services provided by their local government, such a public schools, parks, recreational facilities, police and fire departments, and libraries. (E)

Grade 4: North American Geography with Optional Standards for One Early Civilization

Optional Standards for Ancient China, C. 3000-200 BC/BCE

4.1 On a map of Asia, locate China, the Huang He (Yellow) River and Chang Jiang (Yangtze) Rivers, and the Himalayan Mountains. (G)

4.2 Describe the topography and climate of eastern Asia, including the importance of mountain ranges and deserts, and explain how geography influenced the growth of Chinese civilization. (G, E)

4.3 Describe the ideological writing system used by the Chinese (characters, which are symbols for concepts/ideas) and how it differs from an alphabetic writing system. (H)

4.4 Describe important technologies of China such as bronze casting, silk manufacture, and gunpowder. (H, E)

4.5 Identify who Confucius was and describe his writings on good government, codes of proper conduct, and relationships between parent and child, friend and friend, husband and wife, and subject and ruler. (H, C)

4.6 Describe how the First Emperor unified China by subduing warring factions, seizing land, centralizing government, imposing strict rules, and creating with the use of slave labor large state building projects for irrigation, transportation, and defense (e.g., the Great Wall). (H, C, E)

4.7 After visiting a museum, listening to a museum educator in school, or conducting research in a library, describe an animal, person, building, or design depicted in an ancient Chinese work of art. (H, G)

Regions of the United States*

4.8 On a map of the world, locate North America. On a map of North America, locate the United States, the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, Gulf of Mexico, Mississippi and Rio Grande Rivers, the Great Lakes, Hudson Bay, and the Rocky and Appalachian Mountain ranges. (G)

4.9 On a map of North America, locate the current boundaries of the United States (including Alaska and Hawaii). Locate New England, Middle Atlantic, Atlantic Coast/Appalachian, Southeast/Gulf, South Central, Great Lakes, Plains, Southwest Desert, and Pacific States, and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. (G)

4.10 Identify the states, state capitals, and major cities in each region. (G)

4.11 Describe the climate, major physical features, and major national resources in each region. (G)

4.12 Identify and describe unique features of the United States (e.g., the Everglades, the Grand Canyon, Mount Rushmore, the Redwood Forest, Yellowstone National Park, and Yosemite National Park. (G)

4.13 Identify major monuments and historical sites in and around Washington, D.C. (e.g., the Jefferson and Lincoln Memorials, the Smithsonian Museums, the Library of Congress, the White House, the Capitol, the Washington Monument, the National Archives, Arlington National Cemetery, the Vietnam Veterans Memorial, the Iwo Jima Memorial, and Mount Vernon). (G)

4.14 Identify the five different European countries (France, Spain, England, Russia, and the Netherlands) that influenced different regions of the present United States at the time the New World was being explored and describe how their influence can be traced to place names, architectural features, and language. (H, G)

4.15 Describe the diverse nature of the American people by identifying the distinctive contributions to American culture of:

  • A. at least three indigenous peoples in different areas of the country (e.g., Navajo, Seminoles, Sioux, Hawaiians, and Inuits).
  • B. African Americans, including an explanation of their early concentration in the South because of slavery and the Great Migration to northern cities in the 20th century, and recent African immigrant groups (e.g., Ethiopian) and where they tended to settle in large numbers.
  • C. major European immigrant groups who have come to America, locating their countries of origin and where they tended to settle in large numbers (e.g., English, Germans, Italians, Scots, Irish, Jews, Poles, and Scandinavians).
  • D. major Spanish-speaking (e.g., Cubans, Mexicans) and Asians (e.g., Chinese, Japanese, Koreans, Vietnamese) immigrant groups who have come to America in the 19th and 20th centuries, locating their countries of origin and where then tended to settle i large numbers. (H, G)

4.16 Identify major immigrant groups that live in Massachusetts and where they now live in large numbers (e.g., English, Irish, Italians, French Canadians, Armenians, Greeks, Portuguese, Haitians, and Vietnamese). (H, G)


4.17 On a map of North America, locate Canada, its provinces, and major cities. (G)