< Key Concept 6.2




New Conceptualizations of Global Economy, Society and Culture (1900-present)


Map of world poverty by country, showing percentage of population living on less than 1 dollar per day (2006)
Map of world poverty by country, showing percentage of population living on less than 1 dollar per day (2006)


I. States responded in a variety of ways to the economic challenges of the twentieth century.


What new governmental institutions emerged as a result of the 20th century conflicts?
-Global:
-United Nations
-League of Nations
-European Union
-The New Deal Programs
-World Trade Organization
-World Health Organization
-UNESCO
-UNICEF
-National:
-USA: “The New Deal”, NASA, various conservation administrations
-Russia: dissolution of USSR and formation of Russia Federation


rotating gif.gifSee **World History II.29** on the establishment of the United Nations and the writing of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights

What made these new institutions possible?
· Various conflicts: World War I and II, Cold War
· Global warming
· New communication technology
· Willingness to cooperate
- The Great Depression
What role did they play in the world during the 20th century?
· They enabled the world to establish standards (ie. Weapon control, limits on dangerous emissions from the Kyoto Protocol)
· Attempted to settle conflicts through peaceful negotiation
· Technology race, especially US-Soviet space race
- Attempted to strengthen the economy

Tiananmen Square protests of 1989
Tiananmen Square protests of 1989


A. In the Communist states of the Soviet Union and China, governments controlled their national economies.
  • Joseph Stalin's 5-year plan (1928).
  • Development of machines, steel and transportation. Stalin starved the farmers in Europe's Bread Basket and sent all food to factory workers. Farmers buy from black market to survive.
  • Mao Zedong attempted remove all landlords and create an agrarian society. He attempted to modernize Chinese culture as well.


Mao Zedong's Great Leap Forward (1958-1961)-
This plan developed agriculture and industry which Mao believed both were needed to feed off each other. To allow for this, China was reformed into a series of communes.

primary_sources.PNGGreat Leap Forward Propaganda Posters from chineseposters.net


The movie To Live shows the changes under Mao using the experiences of one family.

primary_sources.PNGTiananmen Square, Then and Now has photographs of the demonstrations and the repressive response of the government; from The Atlantic.

Multimedia.pngSee Visualizing China: 1850-1950 for the photos from Chinese history and society.

rotating gif.gifFor more

B. At the beginning of the century in the United States and parts of Europe, governments played a minimal role in their national economies. With the onset of the Great Depression, governments began to take a more active role in economic life.

How did new international organizations affect the relationship of states and peoples around the world?
· European Union: United the countries of Europe and unified them under one currency
· United Nations: Allowed for intervention of one country in to another country’s affairs in an attempt to help the people who may be suffering under a country’s rule
· Globalization: economies as well as culture


[Teach one illustrative example of government intervention in the economy, either from the list that follows or an example of your choice: The New Deal, The Fascist corporatist economy]

C. In newly independent states after World War II, governments often took on a strong role in guiding economic life to promote development.
What were the economic effects of new international organizations? Humanitarian effects?
· Promoted more trade relations between nations
· Establishment of one single currency in the European Union
· UNESCO helped to create global goals of erasing poverty and increasing communication across the globe
· UNICEF distributed vaccines to underdeveloped African nations

[Teach one illustrative example of governments guiding economic life, either from the list that follows or an example of your choice: Nasser's promotion of economic development in Egypt, The encouragement of export-oriented economies in East Asia]
D. At the end of the twentieth century, many governments encouraged free market economic policies and promoted economic liberalization.

How did international trade and commerce develop in the 20th century?
· The collapse of many European states after World War II called for the establishment of a united Europe, which was accomplished by the European Union.
· After World War II, there was an era of superpowers, nations such as US, China, and the Soviet Union, that dominated global trade.
Antarctic Ozone Hole as at Sept. 22, 2012
Antarctic Ozone Hole as at Sept. 22, 2012

How did these economic developments affect the distribution of world resources?
· The rise of the superpowers saw that many raw resources were concentrated in the hands of the very powerful nations

[Teach one illustrative example of governments encouraging free market policies, either from the list that follows or an example of your choice: The United States beginning with Ronald Reagan, Britain under Margaret Thatcher, China under Deng Xiaoping, Chile under Pinochet]
Roadside billboard of Deng Xiaoping in Lijiang (Yunnan), March 2010.
Roadside billboard of Deng Xiaoping in Lijiang (Yunnan), March 2010.


II. States, communities and individuals became increasingly interdependent, a process facilitated by the growth of international organizations.

For history and forecasts on the World Wide Web, see Imagining the Internet from Elon University.

A. New international organizations formed to maintain world peace and to facilitate international cooperation.

[Teach one illustrative example of new international organizations, either from the list that follows or an example of your choice: The League of Nations, The United Nations, The International Criminal Court]


B. New economic institutions sought to spread the principles and practices associated with free market economics throughout the world.

[Teach one illustrative example of new economic institutions, either from the list that follows or an example of your choice: The International Monetary Fund (IMF), World Bank, World Trade Organization (WTO)]


C. Humanitarian organizations developed to respond to humanitarian crises throughout the world.

Flag of the World Health Organization
Flag of the World Health Organization

[Teach one illustrative example of humanitarian organizations, either from the list that follows or an example of your choice: UNICEF, The Red Cross, Amnesty International, Doctors Without Borders, World Health Organization (WHO)]

Ebola
For background, see Ebola Virus from Microbe Wiki at Kenyon College

This Map will show you every Ebola Outbreak in History from Time (November 2014)

AIDS
rotating gif.gifSee World History II.45 for material on AIDS in Africa.

D. Regional trade agreements created regional trading blocs designed to promote the movement of capital and goods across national borders.

[Teach one illustrative example of regional trade agreements, either from the list that follows or an example of your choice: The European Union, NAFTA, ASEAN, Mercosur]

E. Multinational corporations began to challenge state authority and autonomy.

[Teach one illustrative example of multinational corporations, either from the list that follows or an example of your choice: Royal Dutch Shell, Coca-Cola, Sony]

The book //A History of the World in Six Glasses// has a chapter on Coca-Cola that shows how it made itself multinational.

F. Movements throughout the world protested the inequality of environmental and economic consequences of global integration.

[Teach one illustrative example of protest movements, either from the list that follows or an example of your choice: Greenpeace, Green Belt in Kenya, Earth Day]


III. People conceptualized society and culture in new ways; some challenged old assumptions about race, class, gender and religion; often using new technologies to spread reconfigured traditions.


  • The nature vs. nurture argument began to appear, which stated that the nature of a person could not be changed by social engineering but that certain qualities were produced if they were nurtured. As such, it was believed that social change could improve moral qualities and achievements.

external image 200px-Hebrew_timeline.svg.pngThe Path of Protest is an interactive timeline of Middle East pro-democracy protests in 2010.

A. The notion of human rights gained traction throughout the world.

[Teach one illustrative example of human rights, either from the list below or an example of your choice: The U.N. Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Women's rights, The end of the White Australia Policy]
-Female suffrage
-Civil RIghts movement in America


Female_Rose.pngSee the Global Gender Gap Report 2014 from the World Economic Forum with country profiles

B. Increased interactions among diverse peoples sometimes led to the formation of new cultural identities and exclusionary reactions.

[Teach one illustrative example of new cultural identities, from the example that follows or an example of your choice: Negritude]

[Teach one illustrative example of exclusionary reactions, either from the list that follows or an example of your choice: Xenophobia, Race riots, Citizenship restrictions]

C. Believers developed new forms of spirituality and chose to emphasize particular aspects of practice within existing faiths and apply them to political issues.
How did communities of faith respond to the rapid changes in the 20th century?
· The increase in scientific practices and Darwin’s Origin of Species and theories of evolution caused conflict between science and religion
· The factuality of religion was put into question
· In wake of the poor social conditions, some turned to faith
o Gandhi led movements to achieve peace and freedom from the British hold on the Indian colony

[Teach one illustrative example of new forms of spirituality, either from the list that follows or an example of your choice: New Age Religions, Hare Krishna, Falun Gong, (hippies?)]

[Teach one illustrative example of application of religion to political issues, either from the list that follows or an example of your choice: Fundamentalist movements, Liberation Theology]

The movies The Mission and Romero show Liberation Theology.
The book and movie Persepolis show Iranian fundamentalism.


IV. Popular and consumer activities became global.


Germany women vs. Brazil women, before a crowd of 44,825. Frankfurt April 22, 2009
Germany women vs. Brazil women, before a crowd of 44,825. Frankfurt April 22, 2009

A. Sports were more widely practiced and reflected national and social aspirations.

How did the global nature of culture affect sports, music, fashions, and the arts?
o The increase of an international culture led to the establishment of the Olympics which brought together nations in sports competitions
o The Beatles became a worldwide sensation, which led to globalization of music
o Modernism, cubism, futurism and postmodernism became art movements that were accepted by global community


The Olympics, beginning in the turn of the 19th century, were started by Coubertin's committee hoping to revitalize the competitive spirit brought on by the ancient games.

The 2008 DBQ asked students to "analyze factors that shaped the modern Olympic movement from 1892 to 2002."


The 2012 DBQ asked students to "analyze the relationship between cricket and politics in South Asia from 1880 to 2005."


B. Changes in communication and transportation technology enabled the widespread diffusion of music and film.

[Teach one illustrative example of the diffusion of music and film, either from the list that follows or an example of your choice: Reggae, Bollywood]

external image Reports.gifThe Web at 25 in the U.S. from Pew Research Internet Project (February 27, 2014).

primary_sources.PNG2004 Founders' Letter: An Owner's Manual for Google Shareholders, written by Larry Page and Sergey Bain


For a perspective on technology's impact, see Teaching the iGeneration by Larry Rosen (Educational Leadership, February 2011). He looks at different generations and the place of technology in their lives:

Using the film Lagaan could effectively hit both Key Concept 6.IV.A+B. It is a Bollywood film about Cricket.


rotating gif.gifFor more on technology and other social trends, see United States History II.30