Three Mexican Flags in a Stiff Breeze
Three Mexican Flags in a Stiff Breeze



Topics on the Page
Current Facts and Historical Overview
The Border
Historical Chronology and Important Developments
  • Adams-Onis Treaty of 1819
  • Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, 1848
  • Mexican Immigrants and the California Gold Rush
  • Las Gorras Blancas, 1889-1891
  • Mexican Railroad Laborers, 1900
  • Mexican Repatriation, 1930s & 1940s
  • The Bracero Program, 1942
  • Operation Wetback, 1954
  • The Secure Fence Act, 2006


Current Facts and Historical Overview


General Timeline of U.S.- Mexican Relations (by Council on Foreign Relations)

Photos and information about the US- Mexican Border from National Geographic

Mexican Immigration in the United States, Migration Policy Institute

5 Facts About Mexico and Immigration to the U. S., Pew Research Center (February 11, 2016)

More Mexican Immigrants Leaving the U.S. Than Entering, Report Finds, the New York Times (November 19, 2015)

The History of Mexican Immigration to the U.S. in the early 20th Century, Library of Congress

Uneasy Neighbors: A Brief History of Mexican-U.S. Migration, Harvard Magazine (May/June 2007)

Hoover, Truman and Ike: Mass Deporters? from FactCheck.org (July 2010)
  • Refutes a false claim that 13 million people were deported under these Presidential administrations


The Border

Tijuana, Mexico, right, and San Diego, California
Tijuana, Mexico, right, and San Diego, California


The Changing Mexico-U.S. Border, from Worlds Revealed: Geography and Maps, Library of Congress


The U.S.-Mexico Border: Under the Economic Lens and in the Historical Frame


United States-Mexico Borderlands, Smithsonian Education

Screen Shot 2017-01-30 at 8.22.36 AM.pngInteractive Map from National Geographic


Historical Developments


timeline2_rus.svg.pngHistorical Chronology and Important Events

primary_sources.PNGThe Adams-Onis Treaty of 1819


Primary source document of President Polk's Call on Congress to Declare War on Mexico- Includes an annotation about the document to give context to the time period and prior events leading up to the call for war.

Interactive PBS website about US- Mexican War- Many lesson plans and resources to use in classes for themes surrounding the U.S.- Mexican war, including investigations into Manifest Destiny, media's impact on the war and the public's perceptions of the war, songs of the war and the legacy of the war. Includes many primary sources, newspapers and illustrations and videos.

The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (1848)

  • Granted citizenship to Mexicans living in territory ceded to the U.S. by Mexico after the Mexican War


Mexican Immigrants and California Gold Rush


CPH032_LasGorrasBlancas.jpg

Las Gorras Blancas (The White Caps)

  • a group of Mexican-Americans living in New Mexico protesting against Anglo-Americans that moved into and took their land following the Homestead Act in 1862. Las Gorras Blancas rebelled against the anglo-Americans that were taking their lands by cutting the fences and barbed wire the anglo- Americans put up to enclose and claim lands. This poster was created to commemorate this group.

Mexican Railroad Laborers (1900)

  • U.S. railroad companies actively recruited Mexican workers to help build railroads after the passage of the Chinese Exclusion Act limited the Asian worker supply
    • Estimated that 60 percent of railroad workers at the turn of the century were Mexicans


Mexican Repatriation: Mass Deportations of the 1930s and 1940s



First Braceros arriving, Los Angeles by train, 1942
First Braceros arriving, Los Angeles by train, 1942

The Bracero Program (1942)


How to Pronounce Bracero

Multimedia.pngBittersweet Harvest

The Bracero History Archive makes available oral histories and artifacts about the Bracero program in English and Spanish.

Primary sources (photos, audios, letters, news reports, documents) from the Bracero Program and teaching suggestions for educators

Screen Shot 2017-06-12 at 3.55.03 PM.pngOpportunity or Exploitation: The Bracero Program, National Museum of American History



external image june-18-1954-p1-normal.gif

Operation Wetback (1954)



The Secure Fence Act (2006)


Photo below shows a designed gap in the U.S.-Mexican Border Security Fence at the Rabb Planation, Brownsville, Texas

external image By_design_there_is_a_gap_in_the_United_States-Mexican_border-security_fence._It_allows_U.S._travelers_to_visit_the_Rabb_Plantation%2C_part_of_the_Sabal_Palm_Sanctuary_along_the_Rio_Grande%2C_Brownsville%2C_LCCN2014630481.tif

Fact Sheet on the Secure Fence Act, Bush White House Archives
  • 700 miles of fencing completed in 2007
    • Estimated cost $2.8 million per mile

Fact-Check: Did Top Democrats Vote for a Border Wall in 2006? Politifact (April 23, 2017)



National Labor Relations Board and Mexican Foreign Ministry Sign Letter of Agreement (2013)
  • Provides access to information and education regarding rights and responsibilities for Mexican workers and their employers


primary_sources.PNGMexican American Migrations and Communities, Primary Sources from the Library of Congress