Three Mexican Flags in a Stiff Breeze
Three Mexican Flags in a Stiff Breeze

Topics on the Page
Current Facts and Historical Overview
The Border
Mexican Railroad Laborers
Mexican Repatriation, 1930s & 1940s
The Bracero Program, 1942
Operation Wetback, 1954
The Secure Fence Act, 2006

Current Facts and Historical Overview

Mexican Immigration in the United States, Migration Policy Institute

5 Facts About Mexico and Immigration to the U. S., Pew Research Center (February 11, 2016)

More Mexican Immigrants Leaving the U.S. Than Entering, Report Finds, the New York Times (November 19, 2015)

The History of Mexican Immigration to the U.S. in the early 20th Century, Library of Congress

Uneasy Neighbors: A Brief History of Mexican-U.S. Migration, Harvard Magazine (May/June 2007)

Hoover, Truman and Ike: Mass Deporters? from (July 2010)
  • Refutes a false claim that 13 million people were deported under these Presidential administrations

The Border

Tijuana, Mexico, right, and San Diego, California
Tijuana, Mexico, right, and San Diego, California

The Changing Mexico-U.S. Border, from Worlds Revealed: Geography and Maps, Library of Congress

The U.S.-Mexico Border: Under the Economic Lens and in the Historical Frame

United States-Mexico Borderlands, Smithsonian Education

Screen Shot 2017-01-30 at 8.22.36 AM.pngInteractive Map from National Geographic

timeline2_rus.svg.pngHistorical Chronology

primary_sources.PNGThe Adams-Onis Treaty of 1819

The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (1848)
  • Granted citizenship to Mexicans living in territory ceded to the U.S. by Mexico after the Mexican War

Mexican Railroad Laborers (1900)
  • U.S. railroad companies actively recruited Mexican workers to help build railroads after the passage of the Chinese Exclusion Act limited the Asian worker supply
    • Estimated that 60 percent of railroad workers at the turn of the century were Mexicans

Mexican Repatriation: Mass Deportations of the 1930s and 1940s

First Braceros arriving, Los Angeles by train, 1942
First Braceros arriving, Los Angeles by train, 1942

The Bracero Program (1942)

How to Pronounce Bracero

Multimedia.pngBittersweet Harvest

The Bracero History Archive makes available oral histories and artifacts about the Bracero program in English and Spanish.

Screen Shot 2017-06-12 at 3.55.03 PM.pngOpportunity or Exploitation: The Bracero Program, National Museum of American History

external image june-18-1954-p1-normal.gif
Operation Wetback (1954)

The Secure Fence Act (2006)

Photo below shows a designed gap in the U.S.-Mexican Border Security Fence at the Rabb Planation, Brownsville, Texas

external image By_design_there_is_a_gap_in_the_United_States-Mexican_border-security_fence._It_allows_U.S._travelers_to_visit_the_Rabb_Plantation%2C_part_of_the_Sabal_Palm_Sanctuary_along_the_Rio_Grande%2C_Brownsville%2C_LCCN2014630481.tif

Fact Sheet on the Secure Fence Act, Bush White House Archives
  • 700 miles of fencing completed in 2007
    • Estimated cost $2.8 million per mile

Fact-Check: Did Top Democrats Vote for a Border Wall in 2006? Politifact (April 23, 2017)

National Labor Relations Board and Mexican Foreign Ministry Sign Letter of Agreement (2013)
  • Provides access to information and education regarding rights and responsibilities for Mexican workers and their employers

primary_sources.PNGMexican American Migrations and Communities, Primary Sources from the Library of Congress