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Image shows St. Sebastian pleading for the life of a gravedigger during the Plague of Justinian. Painting by Josse Lieferinxe, between 1497 and 1499


Justinian's Plague from Ancient History Encyclopedia


The plague lasted from 541 to 543 CE. It is estimated 25 million people died in the initial outbreak (13% of the world's population)



The Death Toll of Justinian's Plague and its Effects on the Byzantine Empire


Two of History's Deadliest Plagues were Linked, with Implications for Another Outbreak, National Geographic

Emperor Justinian
Emperor Justinian

Ancient Plague's DNA Revealed from a 1500-Year-Old Tooth, NPR


Yersinia Pestis and the Plague of Justinian, National Center for Biotechnology Information
  • Y pestis lineages that caused the Plague of Justinian and the Black Death 800 years later were independent emergences from rodents into human beings