Skip to main content
Create interactive lessons using any digital content including wikis with our free sister product
. Get it on the
Pages and Files
Democratic Teaching Methods
Hidden Histories, Dramatic Events
, Historical Biographies & Special Topic Pages
AP World History
AP United States History
AP Government & Politics
AP Art History
Grades 1 & 2
Grades 3 & 4
Grade 5 (United States History)
Grade 6 (World Geography)
Grade 7 (Ancient/Classical Civilizations)
World History I & II
United States History I & II
Influential Men: World
Infuential Men: U.S.
Influential Women: U. S.
Influential Women: World
Primary Sources: U.S.
Primary Sources: World
Public Domain and Copyright Information
Large Visitor Globe
Feedjit Live Blog Stats
Explain the part of Article IV, section 4, of the US Constitution, which says:
"The United States shall guarantee to every State in this Union a Republican Form of Government, and shall protect each of them against Invasion; and on Application of the Legislature, or of the Executive (when the Legislature cannot be convened), against domestic Violence."
Clause attributed to James Madison.
Known as the "guarantee clause."
Each state is to function as a representative government (as opposed to some other form of government like a monarchy).
The federal government has the power to protect the states from invasion from a foreign country or from violence that erupts within that state.
The legislature of each state should ask for federal help with uprisings (the executive can perform the same function of the legislature cannot meet).
The full meaning of the first part of the clause is still debated. Courts have not specified exactly what a "republican form of government" means.
For more detail, see
Article IV, Section 4
from Annenberg Classroom.
The Constitution of the United States: A Transcription
For a further definition of the terms in the article, see
from the Bill of Rights Institute.
1. The Articles. Accessed on April 1st, 2008.
help on how to format text
Turn off "Getting Started"