World History I: The World from the Fall of Rome through the Enlightenment

The Emergence and Expansion of Islam to 1500


WHI.1 On a map of the Middle East, Europe, Africa, and Asia, identify where Islam began and trace the course of its expansion to 1500 AD.

WHI.2 Describe significant aspects of Islamic belief.

A. the life and teachings of Muhammad
B. the significance of the Qur’an as the primary source of Islamic belief
C. Islam’s historical relationship to Judaism and Christianity
D. the relationship between government and religion in Muslim societies

WHI.3 Analyze the causes, course, and effects of Islamic expansion through North Africa, the Iberian Peninsula, and Central Asia.

A. the strength of the Islamic world’s economy and culture
B. the training of Muslim soldiers and the use of advanced military techniques
C. the disorganization and internal divisions of Islam’s enemies
D. the resistance and/or assimilation of Christianized peoples in the Mediterranean

WHI.4 Describe the central political, economic, and religious developments in major periods of Islamic history.

A. the sources of disagreement between Sunnis and Shi’ites
B. the importance of the trade routes connecting the Far East and Europe and the role of the Mongols in increasing trade along these routes, including the silk routes to China
C. the relationship of trade to the growth of Central Asian and Middle Eastern cities
D. the sources and uses of slaves in Islamic societies as well as the extent of the Islamic slave trade across Africa from 700 AD on.

WHI.5 Analyze the influence and achievements of Islamic civilization during its “Golden Age."

A. the preservation and expansion of Greek thought
B. Islamic science, philosophy, and mathematics
C. Islamic architecture

The Medieval Period in Europe to 1500


WHI.6 Describe the rise and achievements of the Byzantine Empire.

A. the influence of Constantine, including the establishment of Christianity as an officially sanctioned religion.
B. the importance of Justinian and the Code of Justinian
C. the preservation of Greek and Roman traditions
D. the construction of the Church of the Holy Wisdom (Hagia Sophia).

WHI.7 Describe the major economic, social, and political developments that took place in medieval Europe.

A. the growing influence of Christianity and the Catholic Church
B. the differing orders of medieval society, the development of feudalism, and the development of private property as a distinguishing feature of western civilization
C. the initial emergence of a modern economy, including the growth of banking, technological and agricultural improvements, commerce, towns, and a merchant class
D. the economic and social effects of the spread of the Black Death or Bubonic Plague
E. the growth and development of the English and French nations

WHI.8 Describe developments in medieval English legal and constitutional history and their importance in the rise of modern democratic institutions and procedures, including the Magna Carta, parliament, and habeas corpus.

The Encounters Between Christianity and Islam to 1500


WHI.9 Describe the religious and political origins of conflicts between Islam and Christianity, including the causes, course, and consequences of the European Crusades against Islam in the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries.

WHI.10 Describe the rise of the Ottoman Empire in the 14th and 15th centuries, including the capture of Constantinople in 1453.

WHI.11 Describe the decline of Muslim rule in the Iberian Peninsula and the subsequent rise of Spanish and Portuguese kingdoms after the Reconquest in 1492.

The Origins of European Western Expansion and the Civilizations of Central and South America

WHI.12 Explain why European nations sent explorers westward and how overseas expansion led to the growth of commerce and the development of the trans-Atlantic slave trade.


WHI.13 Identify the three major pre-Columbian civilizations that existed in Central and South America (Maya, Aztec, and Inca) and their locations. Describe their political structures, religious practices, economies, art and architecture, and use of slaves.

WHI.14 Identify the major economic, political, and social effects of the European colonial period in South America.


African History to 1800


WHI.15 Describe the indigenous religious practices observed by early Africans before contact with Islam and Christianity.

WHI.16 Explain how extended family/kinship and tribal relationships have shaped indigenous African cultures, and their effects on the political and economic development of African countries.

WHI.17 Describe the different ways in which Islam and Christianity influenced indigenous African cultures.

WHI.18 Identify the locations and time periods of the empires of Ghana, Mali, and Songhai.

WHI.19 Describe important political and economic aspects of the African empires.

A. the economies of these empires (gold, salt, and slaves as commodities for trade by African kings)
B. leaders such as Sundiata and Mansa Musa
C. Timbuktu as a center of trade and learning

WHI.20 Describe the development and effects of the trans-African slave trade to the Middle East from the 8th century on, and the trans-Atlantic slave trade to the Western Hemisphere from the 16th century on.

Indian History to 1800

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WHI.21 Describe important economic, political, and religious developments in Indian history to 1800.

A. the origins of Indian civilization in the Indus Valley
B. the evolution and central principles of Hinduism
C. the development of the caste system
D. the influence of Islam and the rise and fall of the Moghul empire
E. artistic and intellectual achievements, including the development of a decimal system

WHI.22 Describe the growth of British influence in India and the emergence of the British Raj.

History of China, Japan, and Korea to 1800

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WHI.23 Summarize the major reasons for the continuity of Chinese civilization through the 19th century.

A. the role of kinship and Confucianism in maintaining order and hierarchy
B. the political order established by the various dynasties that ruled China
C. the role of civil servants/scholars in maintaining a stable political and economic order

WHI.24 Discuss the growth of commerce and towns in China and the importance of agriculture to the development of the Chinese economy to 1800, including the limited role of slavery.


WHI.25 Summarize the major economic, political, and religious developments in Japanese history to 1800.

A. the evolution of Shinto and Japanese Buddhism
B. the development of feudalism
C. the rise of the Shoguns and the role of the samurai

WHI.26 Describe Japan’s cultural and economic relationship to China and Korea.

WHI.27 Describe the influence and consequences of Japanese isolationism to 1800.

WHI.28 Explain how Korea has been both a battleground and a cultural bridge between China and Japan.

Renaissance and the Reformation in Europe

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WHI.29 Describe the origins and development of the Renaissance, including the influence and accomplishments of Machiavelli, Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael, Shakespeare, and Johannes Gutenberg.


WHI.30 Describe origins and effects of the Protestant Reformation.

A. the reasons for the growing discontent with the Catholic Church, including the main ideas of Martin Luther and John Calvin
B. the spread of Protestantism across Europe, including the reasons and consequences of England’s break with the Catholic Church
C. the weakening of a uniform Christian faith
D. the consolidation of royal power

WHI.31 Explain the purposes and policies of the Catholic Counter-Reformation, including the influence and ideas of Ignatius Loyola.

WHI.32 Explain the role of religion in the wars among European nations in the 15th and 16th centuries.

Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment in Europe

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WHI.33 Summarize how the Scientific Revolution and the scientific method led to new theories of the universe and describe the accomplishments of leading figures of the Scientific Revolution, including Bacon, Copernicus, Descartes, Galileo, Kepler, and Newton.

WHI.34 Describe the concept of Enlightenment in European history and describe the accomplishments of major Enlightenment thinkers, including Diderot, Kant, Locke, Montesquieu, Rousseau, and Voltaire.

WHI.35 Explain how the Enlightenment contributed to the growth of democratic principles of government, a stress on reason and progress, and the replacement of a theocentric interpretation of the universe with a secular interpretation.

The Growth and Decline of Islamic Empires

WHI.36 Describe the expansion of the Ottoman Empire in the 15th and 16th centuries into North Africa, Eastern Europe, and throughout the Middle East.

WHI.37 Describe the expansion of Islam into India from the 13th through the 17th century, the role of the Mongols, the rise and fall of the Moghul Empire, and the relationship between Muslims and Hindus.

WHI.38 Account for the declining strength of the Ottoman Empire beginning in the 17th century, including the failed siege of Vienna in 1683 and the rapid pace of modernization in European economic, political, religious, scientific, and intellectual life resulting from the ideas embedded in the Renaissance, the Reformation, the Scientific Revolution, the Enlightenment, and the Industrial Revolution.

Image IDs from left to right:

1. map of the Middle East, from the CIA World Factbook map of the Middle East.
2. Muhammad, from Wikimedia Commons, "Mahomet".
3. Muslims praying, from Wikimedia Commons, "Ibadet Eden Kisiler".
4. map of the Byzantine Empire, from the University of Texas at Austin's Perry-Castaneda Library Map Collection website, "The Byzantine Empire and the Ottoman Turks in 1355".
5. Constantine
6. Catholic Church, from the National Park Service web page, "St. Mary's Catholic Church--Indianapolis: A Discover Our Shared History Travel Itinerary".
7. map of the Ottoman Empire, from the University of Texas at Austin's Perry-Castaneda Library Map Collection website, "The Ottoman Empire, 1481-1683".
8. map of Constantinople, from the University of Texas at Austin's Perry-Castaneda Library Map Collection website, "The Ottoman Empire, 1451-1481 - Constantinople".
9. Aztec man, from the California State Capital Museum web page, "Works Progress Administration Murals".
10. Mayan ruins, from NASA's web page, "The Rise and Fall of the Mayan Empire".
11. map of Mali, from the University of Texas at Austin's Perry-Castaneda Library Map Collection website, "Mali (Shaded Relief)".
12. map of the Mongol Empire, from the University of Texas at Austin's Perry-Castaneda Library Map Collection website, "The Mongol Dominations, 1300-1405".
13. Gautama Buddha, from the Smithsonian Institution's Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery, "Gautama Buddha".
14. statue of Japanese Buddhism, from Flickr user Moonlightblub, "Buddha in the Tea Garden".
15. Confucian Temple, from Flickr user Kanegen, "Temple of Confucius".
16. Japanese samurai, from Flickr user Okinawa Soba, "Ready for Battle".
17. The Creation of Adam, from Flickr user Sebastian Bergmann, "Creation of Adam". Original artwork from Michaelangelo located in the Sistine Chapel in Vatican City.
18. William Shakespeare, from the University of Texas at Austin's Portrait Gallery, "William Shakespeare".
19. Martin Luther, from the University of Texas at Austin's Portrait Gallery, "Martin Luther".
20. Sir Isaac Newton, from the University of Texas at Austin's Portrait Gallery, "Sir Isaac Newton".
21. Galileo, from the University of Texas at Austin's Portrait Gallery, "Galileo Galilei".
22. John Locke, from Wikimedia Commons, "John Locke".