World History II: The Rise of the Nation State to the Present

The Growth of the Nation State in Europe

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WHII.1 Describe the growing consolidation of political power in Europe from 1500 to 1800 as manifested in the rise of nation states ruled by monarchs

A. the rise of the French monarchy, including the policies and influence of Louis XIV
B. the Thirty Years War and the Peace of Westphalia
C. the growing power of Russian czars, including the attempts at Westernization by Peter the Great, the growth of serfdom, and Russia’s rise as an important force in Eastern Europe and Asia
D. the rise of Prussia
E. Poland and Sweden

WHII.2 Explain why England was the main exception to the growth of absolutism in royal power in Europe

A. the causes and essential events of the English Civil War and the Glorious Revolution of 1688
B. the effect of the Glorious Revolution on the development of constitutional government and liberty in England, including the importance of the English Bill of Rights and how it limited the power of the monarch to act without the consent of Parliament

WHII.3 Summarize the important causes and events of the French Revolution

A. the effect of Enlightenment political thought
B. the influence of the American Revolution
C. economic troubles and the rising influence of the middle class
D. government corruption and incompetence

A. the role of the Estates General and the National Assembly
B. the storming of the Bastille on July 14, 1789
C. the 1789 Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen
D. the execution of Louis XVI in 1793
E. the Terror
F. the rise and fall of Napoleon
G. the Congress of Vienna

WHII.4 Summarize the major effects of the French Revolution

A. its contribution to modern nationalism and its relationship to totalitarianism
B. the abolition of theocratic absolutism in France
C. the abolition of remaining feudal restrictions and obligations
D. its support for the ideas of popular sovereignty, religious tolerance, and legal equality

Industrial Revolution and Social and Political Change in Europe, 1800-1914


WHII.5 Identify the causes of the Industrial Revolution.

A. the rise in agricultural productivity
B. transportation improvements such as canals and railroads
C. the influence of the ideas of Adam Smith
D. new sources of energy such as coal and technological innovations such as the steam engine

WHII.6 Summarize the social and economic impact of the Industrial Revolution.

A. the vast increases in productivity and wealth
B. population and urban growth
C. the growth of a middle class
D. problems caused by urbanization and harsh working conditions

WHII.7 Describe the rise of unions and socialism, including the ideas and influence of Robert Owen and Karl Marx.


WHII.8 Describe the rise and significance of antislavery sentiment in Britain, including the abolition of the slave trade by the British Parliament in 1807, the abolition of slavery within the British Empire in 1833, and the role of various antislavery societies.

WHII.9 Explain the impact of various social and political reforms and reform movements in Europe.

A. liberalism
B. child labor laws, and social legislation such as old age pensions and health and unemployment insurance
C. the expansion of voting rights

WHII.10 Summarize the causes, course, and consequences of the unification of Italy and Germany.

A. Germany’s replacement of France as the dominant power in continental Europe
B. the role of Cavour and Bismarck in the unification of Italy and Germany

WHII.11 Describe the causes of 19th century European imperialism.

A. the desire for economic gain and resources.
B. the missionary impulse and the search for strategic advantage and national pride.

Asian, African, and Latin American History in the 19th and early 20th centuries

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WHII.12 Identify major developments in Indian history in the 19th and early 20th century

A. the economic and political relationship between India and Britain
B. the building of roads, canals, railroads, and universities
C. the rise of Indian nationalism and the influence and ideas of Gandhi

WHII.13 Identify major developments in Chinese history in the 19th and early 20th centuries.

A. China’s explosive population growth between 1750 and 1850
B. decline of the Manchu dynasty beginning in the late 18th century
C. growing Western influence
D. The Opium War
E. The Taiping rebellion from 1850 to 1864
F. The Boxer Rebellion
G. Sun Yat-Sen and the 1911 nationalist revolution

WHII.14 Identify major developments in Japanese history in the 19th and early 20th centuries.

WHII.15 Identify major developments of African history in the 19th and early 20th centuries.

A. Africa’s interaction with imperialism
B. agricultural changes and new patterns of employment
C. the origins of African nationalism


WHII.16 Identify the major developments of Latin American history to the early 20th century.

A. the wars for independence, including the influence and ideas of Simon Bolivar, Jose de San Martin, and the American and French Revolutions
B. economic and social stratification
C. the role of the church
D. the importance of trade
E. the growing influence of the United States as demonstrated by the Spanish American War and the building of the Panama Canal
F. the Mexican Revolution

The Great Wars, 1914-1945

WHII.17 Describe the relative importance of economic and imperial competition, Balkan nationalism, German militarism and aggression, and the power vacuum in Europe due to the declining power of the Russian, Austrian, and Ottoman Empires in causing World War I.


WHII.18 Describe major events and consequences of World War I.

A. physical and economic destruction
B. the League of Nations and attempts at disarmament
C. the collapse of the Romanov dynasty and the subsequent Bolshevik Revolution and Civil War in Russia
D. post-war economic and political instability in Germany
E. the Armenian genocide in Turkey

WHII.19 Identify the major developments in the Middle East before World War II.

A. the end of the Ottoman Empire
B. the Balfour Declaration of 1917
C. the expulsion of the Greeks from Asia Minor
D. the establishment of a secular Turkish state under Mustafa Kemal Ataturk
E. the establishment of the Kingdom of Transjordan in the eastern part of the Palestine Mandate by the British
F. the growing importance of Middle Eastern oil fields to world politics and the world economy

WHII.20 Describe the various causes and consequences of the global depression of the 1930s, and analyze how governments responded to the Great Depression.

A. restrictive monetary policies
B. unemployment and inflation
C. political instability
D. the influence of the ideas of John Maynard Keynes, Ludwig von Mises, Friedrich von Hayek, and Milton Friedman

WHII.21 Describe the rise and goals of totalitarianism in Italy, Germany, and the Soviet Union, and analyze the policies and main ideas of Mussolini, Hitler, Lenin, and Stalin.

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WHII.22 Summarize the consequences of Soviet communism to 1945.

A. the establishment of a one-party dictatorship under Lenin
B. the suffering in the Soviet Union caused by Stalin’s policies of collectivization of agriculture and breakneck industrialization
C. the destruction of individual rights and the use of mass terror against the population
D. the Soviet Union’s emergence as an industrial power

WHII.23 Describe the German, Italian, and Japanese drives for empire in the 1930s

A. Italy’s invasion of Ethiopia in 1935
B. the Japanese invasion of China and the Rape of Nanking
C. Germany’s militarization of the Rhineland, annexation of Austria, and aggression against Czechoslovakia, the Stalin-Hitler Pact of 1939, and the German attack on Poland

WHII.24 Summarize the key battles and events of World War II.BaugnezCrossroads1.JPG

A. German conquest of continental Europe
B. The Battle of Britain
C. Pearl Harbor
D. The Bataan Death March
E. El Alamein
F. Midway
G. Stalingrad
H. D-Day
I . Battle of the Bulge
J. Iwo Jima
K. Okinawa

WHII.25 Identify the goals, leadership, and post-war plans of the allied leaders.

A. Winston Churchill
B. Franklin D. Roosevelt
C. Joseph Stalin

WHII.26 Describe the background, course, and consequences of the Holocaust, including its roots in the long tradition of Christian anti-Semitism, 19th century ideas about race and nation, and Nazi dehumanization of the Jews.


WHII.27 Explain the reasons for the dropping of atom bombs on Japan and its short and long-term effects.

WHII.28 Explain the consequences of World War II.

A. physical and economic destruction
B. the enormous loss of life, including millions of civilians through the bombing of population centers and the slaughter of political opponents and ethnic minorities
C. support in Europe for political reform and decolonization
D. the emergence of the U.S. and the Soviet Union as the world’s two superpowers

WHII.29 Describe reasons for the establishment of the United Nations in 1945 and summarize the main ideas of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.

Cold War Era, 1945-1989


WHII.30 Summarize the factors that contributed to the Cold War, including Soviet expansion in Eastern Europe and the differences between democracy and communism.

WHII.31 Describe the policy of containment, including the Truman Doctrine, the Marshall Plan, and NATO, as America’s response to Soviet expansionist policies.

WHII.32 Describe the development of the arms race and the key events of the Cold War era.Cubacrisis_17_Oct_1962.jpg

A. the Korean War
B. the emergence of the People’s Republic of China as a major power
C. the 1956 uprising in Hungary
D. Soviet-U.S. competition in the Middle East
E. conflicts involving Cuba and Berlin
F. the Vietnam War
G. the “Prague Spring”
H. arms control agreements (including the ABM and SALT treaties) and détente under Nixon
I. the Soviet war in Afghanistan

WHII.33 Describe the Chinese Civil War, the rise of Mao Tse-tung, and the triumph of the Communist Revolution in China in 1949.

WHII.34 Identify the political and economic upheavals in China after the Chinese Revolution.

A. Communist Party attempts to eliminate internal opposition
B. the Great Leap Forward and its consequences (famine)
C. the Cultural Revolution and its consequences (the terror of the Red Guards and the expansion of labor camps)
D. the 1989 Tiananmen Square demonstration
E. China’s economic modernization and its growing involvement in world trade

WHII.35 Describe the global surge in economic productivity during the Cold War and describe its consequences.

A. the rise in living standards
B. the economic recovery and development of Germany and Japan

WHII.36 Explain the various factors that contributed to post World War II economic and population growth.

WHII.37 Describe how the work of scientists in the 20th century influenced historical events, changed the lives of the general populace, and led to further scientific research.JROppenheimer-LosAlamos.jpg

A. Albert Einstein and the Theory of Relativity
B. Enrico Fermi, J. Robert Oppenheimer, Edward Teller, and nuclear energy
C. Wernher von Braun and space exploration
D. Jonas Salk and the polio vaccine
E. James Watson, Francis Crick, the discovery of DNA, and the Human Genome Project

WHII.38 Describe the development and goals of nationalist movements in Africa, Asia, Latin America, and the Middle East, including the ideas and importance of nationalist leaders.

A. Fidel Castro (Cuba)
B. Patrice Lumumba (Congo)
C. Ho Chi Minh (Vietnam)
D. Gamal Abdel Nasser (Egypt)
E. Jawaharlal Nehru (India)
F. Juan Peron (Argentina)

WHII.39 Explain the background for the establishment of the modern state of Israel in 1948, and the subsequent military and political conflicts between Israel and the Arab world .

A. the growth of Zionism, and 19th and early 20th century immigration by Eastern European Jews to Palestine
B. anti-Semitism and the Holocaust
C. the UN vote in 1947 to partition the western part of the Palestine Mandate into two independent countries
D. the rejection of surrounding Arab countries of the UN decision and the invasion of Israel by Arab countries
E. the 1967 and 1973 wars between Israel and neighboring Arab states
F. the attempts to secure peace between Palestinians and Israelis

The Contemporary World, 1989-2001


WHII.40 Identify the causes for the decline and collapse of the Soviet Union and the communist regimes of Eastern Europe.

A. the weaknesses of the Soviet command economy
B. the burdens of Soviet military commitments
C. the anticommunist policies of President Reagan
D. the resistance to communism in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe

WHII.41 Explain the role of various leaders in transforming the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe.

A. Mikhail Gorbachev
B. Vaclav Havel
C. Andrei Sakharov
D. Aleksander Solzhenitsyn
E. Lech Walesa

WH 42 Analyze the consequences of the Soviet Union’s breakup.

A. the development of market economies
B. political and social instability


C. the danger of the spread of nuclear technology and other technologies of mass destruction to rogue states and terrorist organizations

WHII.43 Identify the sources of ethnic and religious conflicts in the following nations and regions.

A. Northern Ireland
B. the Balkans
C. Sudan and Rwanda
D. Sri Lanka
E. Kashmir

WHII.44 Explain the reasons for the fall of apartheid in South Africa, including the influence and ideas of Nelson Mandela.

WHII.45 Explain the social and economic effects of the spread of AIDS in Asian and African countries.

WHII.46 Explain how the computer revolution contributed to economic growth and advances in science, medicine, and communication.

WHII.47 Explain the rise and funding of Islamic fundamentalism in the last half of the 20th century and identify the major events and forces in the Middle East over the last several decades.National_Park_Service_9-11_Statue_of_Liberty_and_WTC_fire.jpg

A. the weakness and fragility of the oil-rich Persian Gulf states, including Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, and others
B. the Iranian Revolution of 1978-1979
C. defeat of the Soviet Union by the Mujahideen in Afghanistan
D. the origins of the Persian Gulf War and the post-war actions of Saddam Hussein
E. the financial support of radical and terrorist organizations by the Saudis
F. the increase in terrorist attacks against Israel and the United States

WHII.48 Describe America’s response to and the wider consequences of the September 11, 2001 terrorist attack on the World Trade Center in New York City and the Pentagon in Washington, D. C.

Image IDs from left to right:

1. Louis XIV, from Wikimedia Commons, "Louis XIV".
2. Peter the Great, from the University of Texas at Austin's Portrait Gallery, "Peter I (Peter the Great)".
3. Napoleon Bonaparte, from the University of Texas at Austin's Portrait Gallery, "Napoleon Bonaparte (Napoleon I)".
4. steam engine train, from the National Park Service web page, "Homestead National Monument of America - Creation of Homestead National Monument of America (U.S. National Park Service)".
5. Adam Smith, from Wikimedia Commons, "Adam Smith".
6. Karl Marx, from Wikimedia Commons, "Karl Marx".
7. map of Qing Dynasty, from Wikimedia Commons, "Qing China".
8. Gandhi, from Wikimedia Commons, "Portrait Gandhi".
9. The Opium War, from Wikimedia Commons, "Destroy Opium".
10. Simon Bolivar, from the University of Texas at Austin's Portrait Gallery, "Simon Bolivar".
11. map of World War I Alliances, from Wikimedia Commons, "Map European Alliances 1914".
12. Joseph Stalin, from Wikimedia Commons, "Portrait of Stalin in 1936".
13. Benito Mussolini, from Wikimedia Commons, "Benito Mussolini by Philip Alexius de László, 1923".
14. Vladimir Lenin, from Wikimedia Commons, "Lenin".
15. Adolf Hitler, from Wikimedia Commons, "Adolf Hitler - 1933".
16. map of the Battle of the Bulge, from Wikimedia Commons, "Baugnez Crossroads 1".
17. the main gate at Auschwitz Concentration Camp, from Wikimedia Commons, "Auschwitz Camp Entrance".
18. Korean War Veterans Memorial in Washington, DC, from the National Park Service.
19. aerial map of the missiles in Cuba, from Wikimedia Commons, "Cuba Crisis 17 Oct 1962".
20. J. Robert Oppenheimer, from Wikimedia Commons, "JR Oppenheimer - Los Alamos".
21. Soviet Union soldier, from Wikimedia Commons, "Fantastic uniform by USSR 1980s".
22. Mikhail Gorbachev, from Wikimedia Commons, "Gorbachev (cropped)".
23. fall of the Berlin Wall, from Wikimedia Commons, "The fall of the Berlin Wall 1989".
24. attack on the World Trade Centers on September 11th, 2001, from Wikimedia Commons, "National Park Service 9-11 Statue of Liberty and WTC fire".