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  1. page 5.12 edited ... Experience of Women The Triangle Trade Free American Americans in the Colonies The Dunmor…
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    Experience of Women
    The Triangle Trade
    Free American Americans in the Colonies
    The Dunmore Proclamation
    Olaudah Equiano
    ...
    In West Africa, these ships traded their European supplies for slaves, which they then brought across the Atlantic Ocean to the Caribbean and North America.
    After selling the slaves in the Caribbean and North America, the ships returned to Europe carrying New World exports, such as sugar, rum, tobacco, and hemp.
    Free African Americans in the Colonies
    To gain further understanding on the lives of free African Americans in the Colonies, their individual accomplishments, and collective engagements, click here
    Learn about freedom and bondage in the colonial era by visiting this PBS page which provides varying perspectives on slavery.
    Click here to learn about the Dunmore Proclamation which many enslaved African Americans took advantage of in hopes of a chance at freedom.

    {http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/78/Olaudah_Equiano_-_Project_Gutenberg_eText_15399.png} Olaudah Equiano, aka Gustavus Vassa, 1789
    {http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/cb/Essener_Feder_01.png} Olaudah Equiano
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    {primary_sources.PNG} Learn more about Amos Fortune, an African American slave who later became a free man who lived in Massachusetts and New Hampshire.
    For more on the historical development of slavery and white racism toward African Americans, see USI.40 and the resources below.
    Free African Americans
    Had to follow Black Codes, which limited the rights and freedoms of free black people.
    Were not allowed access to education, voting, and employment.
    ...
    Free African Americans were not treated equally. Laws were often enacted to keep them weaker than whites. These laws have existed as recently as the 1960s, and were known as Jim Crow laws.
    After Lincoln signed the Emancipation Proclamation to free slaves, many were not released. Those who were freed had no clothing, money, or food and often they had been long separated from their families.
    {Rotating_globe-small.gif} To gain further understanding on the lives of free African Americans in the Colonies, their individual accomplishments, and collective engagements, click here
    {Rotating_globe-small.gif} Learn about freedom and bondage in the colonial era by visiting this PBS page which provides varying perspectives on slavery.
    {Rotating_globe-small.gif} Click here to learn about the Dunmore Proclamation which many enslaved African Americans took advantage of in hopes of a chance at freedom.

    {primary_sources.PNG} 1865 Mississippi Black Codes
    {Multimedia.png} For a video, see Jim Crow Museum Documentary on
    (view changes)
    1:47 pm
  2. page 5.12 edited ... What was the experience of free African Americans in the colonies? Topics on the Page Teachi…
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    What was the experience of free African Americans in the colonies?
    Topics on the Page
    Teaching
    Resources……..
    Resources
    Rhode Island
    and
    and the Slave Trade……..Trade
    Massachusetts and the Slave Trade

    Causes of
    African Slavery……..
    Middle Passage……..
    Triangle
    Trade
    Free
    African
    Americans
    Slavery in the American Colonies
    The Middle Passage
    Experience of Women
    The Triangle Trade
    The Dunmore Proclamation
    Olaudah Equiano
    Phillis Wheatley

    "The African slave who sailed to the New World did not sail alone. People bought their culture, no matter how adverse the circumstances, and therefore part of American is African."
    Henry Louis Gates,Jr.
    Teaching Resources
    {rotating gif.gif}
    For more on African slavery and the trans-Atlantic slave trade, see WHI.20 and USI.29
    ...
    African slaves were inexpensive
    colonists needed more help to keep up with the demand for agriculture and trade
    Harsh Conditions of theThe Middle Passage
    The Middle Passage is the term given to journey that Africans were forced to make from west Africa to the Americas on slave ships. Some 9 to 15 million Africans were enslaved and taken to the Americas.
    Click on the following link for a closer look at a slave ship
    (view changes)
    1:44 pm
  3. page USI.7 edited ... Dolley Madison George Washington {https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/38/Const…
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    Dolley Madison
    George Washington
    {https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/38/Constitutional_ratification_1938_U.S._stamp.1.jpg}
    Women and the Constitution
    See also Grade 5.18
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    1:34 pm
  4. page USI.7 edited ... Explain the roles of various founders at the Constitutional Convention. Describe the major deb…
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    Explain the roles of various founders at the Constitutional Convention. Describe the major debates that occurred at the Convention and the "Great Compromise" that was reached.
    {http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/9d/Scene_at_the_Signing_of_the_Constitution_of_the_United_States.jpg} Signing of the Constitution of the United States. Painting by Howard Chandler Christy, 1940
    {Map_of_USA_MA.svg.png} For more information, see
    AP United States History 4 on the American Revolutionary Era
    AP Government on the Constitution
    Topics on the Page
    A. Major Debates
    The distribution of political power
    ...
    Dolley Madison
    George Washington
    Women and the Constitution
    See also Grade 5.18
    Focus Questions: What were the roles of various founders at the Constitutional Convention? What were the major debates that occurred at the Convention?
    ...
    9. Rights of individuals not outlined in the Bill of Rights
    10. Any powers not vested in the federal government are granted to the states and the people
    {womens history.jpg} While it is commonly believed that women were not mentioned at all during the Constitutional Convention, there was in fact one small reference made to them at a meeting on June 11, 1787.
    Rutgers University professor Jan Lewis discusses the meaning and significance of this finding in this really fascinating article.

    Rights of States
    The Articles of Confederation reflected a fear of tyranny or a strong central government.
    ...
    {primary_sources.PNG} The Papers of George Washington
    {rotating gif.gif} See United States History I.22 for more information on George Washington's Presidency.
    Women and the Constitution
    {womens history.jpg} While it is commonly believed that women were not mentioned at all during the Constitutional Convention, there was in fact one small reference made to them at a meeting on June 11, 1787.
    Rutgers University professor Jan Lewis discusses the meaning and significance of this finding in this really fascinating article.

    Women Who Shaped the Constitution
    Lesson Plan Focusing on Abigail Adams and Mercy Otis Warren
    The Women Behind the Signers
    Sources
    Ashbrook Center for Public Affairs at Ashland University, (2006). TeachingAmericanHistory.org . Retrieved April 8, 2007, Web site: http://teachingamericanhistory.org/convention/
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    1:03 pm
  5. page USI.7 edited ... 9. Rights of individuals not outlined in the Bill of Rights 10. Any powers not vested in the …
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    9. Rights of individuals not outlined in the Bill of Rights
    10. Any powers not vested in the federal government are granted to the states and the people
    {womens history.jpg}
    While
    While it is
    ...
    11, 1787. Rutgers
    Rutgers
    University professor
    Rights of States
    The Articles of Confederation reflected a fear of tyranny or a strong central government.
    ...
    {primary_sources.PNG} The Papers of George Washington
    {rotating gif.gif} See United States History I.22 for more information on George Washington's Presidency.
    Women Who Shaped the Constitution
    Lesson Plan Focusing on Abigail Adams and Mercy Otis Warren

    Sources
    Ashbrook Center for Public Affairs at Ashland University, (2006). TeachingAmericanHistory.org . Retrieved April 8, 2007, Web site: http://teachingamericanhistory.org/convention/
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    12:56 pm
  6. 12:53 pm
  7. page USI.7 edited ... Focus Questions: What were the roles of various founders at the Constitutional Convention? Wha…
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    Focus Questions: What were the roles of various founders at the Constitutional Convention? What were the major debates that occurred at the Convention?
    Click here an interactive graphic of the painting on the right side of the page, Scene at the Signing of the Constitution of the United States by Howard Chandler Christy, and other depictions of the signing from TeachingAmericanHistory.org
    {https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/64/Juengling_Kappes_Convention_at_Philadelphia.jpg} 19th Century Engraving by Frederick Juengling and Alfred Kappes
    {primary_sources.PNG} For primary source documents on the Constitution, see the Founders Constitution from the University of Chicago Press and the Liberty Fund.
    {timeline2_rus.svg.png} Flip through this very thorough and comprehensive timeline about the events surrounding the Constitutional Convention. Almost every event has a link connecting you with primary sources, or explanation and analysis of the event.
    ...
    There's also this quick and dirty run through of the events of the convention made by Hughes History on YouTube; it's about 15 so it's a good length for showing it in class.
    {womens history.jpg} PBS has a documentary and primary documents (Abigail Adams' letter to John Adams to 'Remember the ladies') for the American Experience: John and Abigail Adams
    ...
    Schuster, 2010.
    As historian Richard Brookhiser noted in his review of Maier's book, "both sides [Federalists and Anti-Federalists] won something. The Constitution prevailed, but the spirited resistance encouraged the First Congress to propose the amendments now known as the Bill of Rights" (The New York Times Book Review, October 31, 2010, p. 20).
    {primary_sources.PNG} Go here for names and pictures of the 56 signers of the Declaration of Independence, the 40 signers of the Constitution, and the 15 delegates to the Constitutional Convention who did not sign the Constitution from Wikimedia Commons.
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    12:45 pm
  8. page USI.7 edited ... Click here an interactive graphic of the painting on the right side of the page, Scene at the …
    ...
    Click here an interactive graphic of the painting on the right side of the page, Scene at the Signing of the Constitution of the United States by Howard Chandler Christy, and other depictions of the signing from TeachingAmericanHistory.org
    {primary_sources.PNG} For primary source documents on the Constitution, see the Founders Constitution from the University of Chicago Press and the Liberty Fund.
    Flip{timeline2_rus.svg.png} Flip through this
    {game_icon.svg.png} Which Founder are You? How does your personality most resemble one of the founders? Click here to take an online quiz from the National Constitution Center to compare personality traits with 12 delegates to the Constitutional Convention.
    {Screen Shot 2016-02-13 at 11.47.54 AM.png} Interactive Constitution from the National Constitution Center allows readers to view the Constitution article by article with explanatory notes from Linda R.
    ...
    There's also this quick and dirty run through of the events of the convention made by Hughes History on YouTube; it's about 15 so it's a good length for showing it in class.
    {womens history.jpg} PBS has a documentary and primary documents (Abigail Adams' letter to John Adams to 'Remember the ladies') for the American Experience: John and Abigail Adams
    ...
    Schuster, 2010. As
    As
    historian Richard
    {primary_sources.PNG} Go here for names and pictures of the 56 signers of the Declaration of Independence, the 40 signers of the Constitution, and the 15 delegates to the Constitutional Convention who did not sign the Constitution from Wikimedia Commons.
    {Multimedia.png} Click here for a multimedia resource given by Joseph Ellis, an instructor at Mount Holyoke College, about the Revolutionary Generation
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  9. page 5.11 edited ... Fishing was centered at the ports of Gloucester, Marblehead, New Bedford, and Nantucket. By 17…
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    Fishing was centered at the ports of Gloucester, Marblehead, New Bedford, and Nantucket. By 1740, 150 whaling ships sailed from Nantucket alone.
    Fishing
    ...
    400 years.
    Great fleets of vessels sailed from Gloucester and Boston to the eastern- most reaches of North America -- the Grand Banks of Newfoundland.
    Catches of cod supported nearly 400 schooners in each of these ports, and a multitude of shore-side businesses thrived including ropemaking, sailmaking, salt mining, ice harvesting in fresh-water ponds, and a boat building industry that made the shipyards on the Essex River among the busiest and best known in the world.
    ...
    Native Americans taught the Plymouth colonists how to plant seeds with a small fish as fertilizer and how to catch eels.\
    Indian Fish and Fishing Off Coastal Massachusetts, Nantucket Historical Association
    ...
    Story, TalkingFirsh.org.
    Squanto (Tisquantum) taught colonists to plan seeds with a small fish and how to catch ells.
    {https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/81/Cook-whaling.jpg}
    ...
    Maritime Commerce and Taxation
    With the development of maritime commerce came the opportunity to regulate and tax. Prior to the American Revolution, Britain established a resident American Board of Customs in Boston based on the English Board of Trade and enacted harsh, new regulations on imports and exports in the colonies. This was not the first time that such taxes were inflicted on the colonists, who soon showed their discontent by burning local customhouses and houses of customs officers, and tarring and feathering customs officers.
    Click{Multimedia.png} Click here for
    {SacredCod-780x521.jpg} The "Sacred Cod"
    The "Sacred Cod"
    ...
    in pine. The
    The
    fish is
    ...
    the meetings. The
    The
    Sacred Cod
    ...
    the Commonwealth.
    Trans-Atlantic

    The Trans-Atlantic
    Trade
    {rotating gif.gif} For more, see World History I.12 and Origins of the Atlantic Slave Trade
    {map-ancient-rome-2.jpg} Click here for an interactive map of Triangular Trade Routes
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    12:05 pm
  10. page 5.11 edited ... Fishing was centered at the ports of Gloucester, Marblehead, New Bedford, and Nantucket. By 17…
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    Fishing was centered at the ports of Gloucester, Marblehead, New Bedford, and Nantucket. By 1740, 150 whaling ships sailed from Nantucket alone.
    Fishing
    ...
    400 years. Great
    Great
    fleets of
    ...
    of Newfoundland. Catches
    Catches
    of cod
    Native American Fishing
    Long before Europeans arrived and "discovered" America, Native Americans fished along its shores, using hooks they made from bones and nets made from natural fibers.
    ...
    Native Americans taught the Plymouth colonists how to plant seeds with a small fish as fertilizer and how to catch eels.\
    Indian Fish and Fishing Off Coastal Massachusetts, Nantucket Historical Association
    A Thanksgiving Fish Story, TalkingFirsh.org.
    Squanto (Tisquantum) taught colonists to plan seeds with a small fish and how to catch ells.

    {https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/81/Cook-whaling.jpg}
    Whaling
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    11:59 am

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